Earl Anthony Wayne Interview: Conversations with History; Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley

U.S. Economic Policy after 9/11: Conversation with Earl Anthony Wayne, Assistant Secretary for Economic and Business Affairs, U.S. Department of State; December 13, 2004, by Harry Kreisler

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Several times, you've mentioned learning. Your own personal processes of learning -- as the times changed, your roles change -- but also the country learning. In retrospect, I guess it would be fair to say that we were on a "globalization high" during that decade prior to 9/11 in the sense that a lot of what we wanted to achieve in the world we felt could be done through these economic and social and cultural processes that come under the rubric of globalization. Talk a little about that. Is my characterization correct?

I think it is. In some way you can think about the decade of the 1990s as countries shifting from dictatorial, non-market-based systems to the quadrant of democracies or more representative governments and market-based systems. That's what happened in Central Europe. Even in Russia there was a shift in that direction, and in many other places around the world, in Latin America, a move to democracy. A lot of that had to do with globalization, because it's globalization of idea flow as well as economics. At the same time, you have these negative reactions to globalization, too -- the protest against multinational corporations, or for some people, the Americanization of their culture, or even the imposition of foreign ideas [like] democracy: "What are you doing, sending these ideas in here?"

That was a lot of what was going on in the 1990s, and a lot of it was happening without many people recognizing it. It was only as we started getting reactions to it and thinking it through that we saw what was happening. That great book by Tom Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, pulled it all together in a very clear and readable way for a lot people to understand the changes that were taking place in societies because of this globalization. That meant a lot for our operation of foreign policy also.

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